Gorilla Mind ‘Respawn‘ is our aggressively dosed, turnkey gaming formula designed for amplified focus, clean energy, elevated mental clarity, and enhanced reaction time.
It has gone through several iterations and has been in the works for over a year now, and I’m very proud of how it turned out.
Despite being branded as a gaming formula, Respawn doubles as a potent nootropic and energy stack for any mentally demanding tasks, and is perfect for intense work sessions and boosting productivity.
This formula is unique in that despite not being aggressively stimulant heavy, you should still feel it kick hard.
Rather than just redlining your central nervous system (CNS) into staying awake, this will actually support motivation, drive, and significantly improve several cognitive performance metrics.
Alright, let’s get into the attributes in a gaming context, then I'll spin off and mention how it can also be useful to those who don't game (I don't personally game except the odd game of Smash Bros).
Table of Contents
How It Works
Respawn enhances crucial gaming skills such as accuracy, psychomotor vigilance, rapid decision making, map awareness, multitasking, working memory, communication, and the reduction of overall errors.
This formula was designed to push the dopaminergic, cholinergic, and cerebral vasodilatory pathways hard.
Through specific synergy of these pathways, I was able create something that yields a clear amplification of cognitive performance, and I’m stoked for you guys to try it.
Flavor And Mixability
When gaming, we know how important it is to have a drink that you actually enjoy sipping on.
This is why it was important to us to make sure that Gorilla Mind Respawn mixed extremely well, and the flavor was on point.
In my opinion, we nailed it, especially given the stacked active ingredients profile.
We have several more flavors coming very soon, so there will almost certainly be a flavor you’ll like in our catalog.
How To Dose Gorilla Mind Respawn
Mix 1-2 scoops of Gorilla Mind Respawn in 12-14 ounces of water and consume 30 minutes prior to gaming or beginning any cognitively demanding task, preferably on an empty stomach for optimal results.
Vary the amount of water to achieve your desired flavor level.
First time users should begin use with ½ – 1 scoop or less to evaluate tolerance.
Can Respawn Double As A Pre-Workout?
Respawn can double as a pre-workout.
It is fantastic for the cognitive/focus/dopaminergic drive component.
The pump should also be decent at the full 2 scoop dose given the cerebral vasodilatory component extends systemically.
It won’t be a replacement for something like Gorilla Mode ‘Nitric’, but it will provide a significant boost in Nitric Oxide, and could be an excellent standalone for those seeking the mental drive and energy component of pre-workouts.
If maximum energy and focus are desired along with maximum performance, the highest impact combination would be using Respawn or ‘Energy’ with Nitric.
I will discuss optimal combinations later in this article.
Gorilla Mind Respawn Vs. Other Gaming Formulas On The Market
Much like the pre-workout market in 2019, there is a severe lack of transparency and efficacy in the gaming and eSports supplementation space.
In 2019, Gorilla Mode changed the trajectory of the pre-workout industry towards educated customers seeking stacked, efficacious, and transparent formulations (or at least had a significant influence on it).
Gorilla Mind Respawn will have the same industry-changing impact on the gaming space
This is the most potent and effective gaming formula on the market.
Most gaming/eSports formulas are literally flavored Caffeine powder with pixie dusted antioxidants and amino acids.
Per max dose Gorilla Mind Respawn features 5000 mg of L-Tyrosine, 2000 mg of nooLVL®, 800 mg of Alpha-GPC 50%, 400 mg of Uridine Monophasphate, 300 mg of Caffeine, 240 mg of Ginkgo Extract, 150 mg of L-Theanine, 30 mg of Saffron Extract, 400 mcg of Huperzine A, and a blend of 9 essential vitamins in their biologically active formats.
Gorilla Mind Respawn Supplement Facts
Per Full Daily Dose:
- Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid) – 180 mg
- Thiamin (as Thiamin HCl) – 2.4 mg
- Riboflavin (as Riboflavin 5’-Phosphate Sodium) – 2.6 mg
- Niacin (as Niacinamide) – 32 mg
- P5P (Vitamin B6) (as Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate) – 20 mg
- Methylfolate (as L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate Calcium Salt) – 1360 mcg DFE
- Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin) – 10 mcg
- Biotin – 60 mcg
- Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium Pantothenate) – 10 mg
- L-Tyrosine – 5,000 mg
- nooLVL® (Inositol-Enhanced Bonded Arginine Silicate) – 2,000 mg
- Alpha-GPC 50% (L-Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine) – 800 mg
- Uridine 5’-Monophosphate – 400 mg
- Caffeine Anhydrous – 300 mg
- Ginkgo Extract (Ginkgo Biloba) (leaf) (50:1 Standardized Extract, Min. 24% Ginkgo Flavonglycosides and 6% Terpene Lactones) – 240 mg
- L-Theanine – 150 mg
- Saffron Extract (Crocus Sativus) (flower) – 30 mg
- Huperzine A (Huperzia serrata leaf standardized extract) – 400 mcg
Gorilla Mind Respawn Ingredients Breakdown
Essential vitamins support various physiological processes, including maintaining a healthy immune system, energy metabolism, and nervous system function.
They cannot be synthesized in the body in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained from the diet.
In general, most diets are deficient in one or more essential vitamins, and the synthesis of several hormones and neurotransmitters are reliant on satisfactory quantities of essential vitamins present.
For example, having enough B vitamins present is critical for Dopamine synthesis.
Stressful and/or cognitively demanding situations can also deplete neurotransmitters, leading to higher essential vitamin demands.
Adequate amounts of these essential vitamins can be obtained through a high-quality diet.
However, to hedge against the likely chance of deficiencies, I included a complex of C and B vitamins in their biologically active formats.
Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid) – 180 mg
Vitamin C plays a role in cognitive function through several mechanisms, including its antioxidant properties, involvement in neurotransmitter synthesis, and ability to support the health and function of the brain.
Some studies have suggested Vitamin C supplementation may improve cognitive performance, attention, and memory.
In this formula, Vitamin C administration is most useful in how it interacts with the enzymes Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Dopamine β-Hydroxylase.
Tyrosine Hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis.
The general function of Norepinephrine is to mobilize the brain and body for action by increasing alertness and vigilance.
Thiamin (as Thiamin HCl) – 2.4 mg
Thiamin, also known as Vitamin B1, is essential for overall health as it plays a crucial role in energy metabolism, nerve function and brain development.
One human study showed an increase in reaction time from Thiamin supplementation [R].
It has been proposed that supplementing this B Vitamin may help delay the onset of cognitive decline [R].
Riboflavin (as Riboflavin 5’-Phosphate Sodium) – 2.6 mg
Riboflavin, also known as Vitamin B2, plays a key role in energy metabolism, red blood cell formation, and the maintenance of healthy skin, eyes, and the nervous system.
A human study involving middle-aged and elderly people found that a higher intake of riboflavin was associated with improvements in multi-dimensional cognitive functioning [R].
Niacin (as Niacinamide) – 32 mg
Niacin, also known as Vitamin B3, plays a key role in energy production, the maintenance of healthy skin, nervous system function, and DNA synthesis.
Niacin supplementation has been associated with improved sensory register (the short-term storage of memory received through the environment) and short-term memory.
The literature available suggests that this is facilitated through enhanced neuronal transmission [R].
P5P (Vitamin B6) (as Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate) – 20 mg
Much like the other B vitamins, Vitamin B6 plays several overlapping roles in supporting optimal function.
With that said, the main attribute of interest in this formula is the impact it has on the production of neurotransmitters, such as Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline).
L-DOPA (Levodopa) is the precursor to Dopamine, meaning that it is converted into Dopamine in the brain.
This conversion process is facilitated by an enzyme called Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase (L-Dopa Decarboxylase), which requires P5P (the active form of Vitamin B6), as a cofactor [R].
I chose to include activated Vitamin B6 (P5P) instead of the commonly used inactive Pyridoxine HCl because the conversion process directly requires P5P.
In addition, literature shows that supplementing with the inactive form of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) may competitively inhibit activated B6 from working, and could even paradoxically lead to a B6 deficiency through its supplementation [R].
Adequate B6 status is critical for downstream Dopaminergic neurotransmission.
Methylfolate (as L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate Calcium Salt) – 1360 mcg DFE
Folate, also known as Vitamin B9, is involved in several reactions that are essential for neurotransmitter synthesis.
For example, it is required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, which is a precursor to several neurotransmitters.
Folate is also involved in the synthesis of S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in the methylation of neurotransmitter precursors and receptors, and plays a key role in adrenergic signaling.
Adrenergic signaling will stimulate the fight-or-flight response via the sympathetic nervous system.
Supplementation of folate has been shown to help decrease homocysteine concentrations, which may help improve memory, information processing speed, and motor skills speed [R].
I chose to include methylfolate instead of folic acid to hedge against genetically influenced conversion impairments.
Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, which is commonly used in dietary supplements and fortification programs.
Methylfolate, on the other hand, is the biologically active form of folate, which is found in food and is directly usable by the body.
It is estimated that approximately 10-15% of the population carry one or two copies of the MTHFR C677T mutation, and up to 40% carry one copy of the MTHFR A1298C mutation.
MTHFR is an enzyme that is responsible for converting folic acid to methylfolate.
Individuals who carry one or two copies of the MTHFR C677T or A1298C mutations may have reduced activity of the MTHFR enzyme, which can impair the conversion of folic acid to methylfolate.
This can lead to a buildup of unmetabolized folic acid in the blood and a decrease in these individuals’ levels of methylfolate.
Personally, I have two copies of the MTHFR C677T mutation, which results in only 10-20% the efficiency in processing folic acid and can lead to high homocysteine, low B12 and low folate levels.
Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin) – 10 mcg
Vitamin B12 is required for the development, myelination, and function of the central nervous system. [R]
Contextually in this formula, Vitamin B12 acts as a cofactor in synthesis of neurotransmitters such as Serotonin and Dopamine. [R]
B12 deficiency can lead to decreased production of neurotransmitters and affect cognitive function, causing symptoms such as fatigue and lethargy [R].
Cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin are two forms of vitamin B12.
Methylcobalamin is the biologically active form and cyanocobalamin is the most common form found in supplements and fortified foods.
I included methylcobalamin in this formula because it is a better methyl donor compared to cyanocobalamin, and some studies have suggested that methylcobalamin supplementation may have a positive impact on neurotransmitter function.
Biotin – 60 mcg
Biotin, also known as Vitamin B7, is a cofactor for several enzymes involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, including decarboxylases, which are involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as Dopamine, Serotonin, and GABA.
Pantothenic Acid (as Calcium Pantothenate) – 10 mg
Pantothenic Acid, also known as Vitamin B5, is involved in various metabolic processes, including the synthesis of neurotransmitters, and it is a component of coenzyme A (CoA).
Pantothenic acid can play a vital role in maintaining adequate levels of acetylcholine as well as attenuating neurodegeneration and myelin loss [R].
L-Tyrosine – 5,000 mg
L-Tyrosine is an amino acid that is used by the body to produce proteins and neurotransmitters, including Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine.
These neurotransmitters play important roles in regulating mood, energy levels, and stress response.
Anecdotally, L-Tyrosine tends to be taken in doses of 500-2000 mg 30-60 minutes before cognitively demanding work or exercise.
The Pathway For Catecholamine And Trace Amine Synthesis
The following is a visual representation of the pathway for catecholamine and trace amine synthesis in the human brain:
All catecholamines are synthesized from the amino acid L-Tyrosine according to the following sequence:
L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA (Levodopa) → Dopamine → Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) → Epinephrine (Adrenaline).
Supplementing with L-Tyrosine has been shown to have potential benefits for cognitive function, particularly in stressful or fatigue-inducing environments, by increasing the synthesis of these neurotransmitters.
Effect On Reaction Time And Vigilance
L-Tyrosine usage acutely augments reaction time and vigilance and has been shown to attenuate performance impairments induced by high levels of environmental stress [R].
Effect On Memory And Military Tracking Performance
In another unique study, Tyrosine was given to 21 cadets during a demanding military combat training course.
The cadets supplied with the Tyrosine performed better on a memory and a tracking task [R].
It’s easy to see where these findings have practical utility in a gaming context, especially with so many games requiring incredibly quick reflexes, accuracy, map awareness, peaked working memory, and tracking.
Dextroamphetamine Vs. L-Tyrosine Sleep Deprivation Study
L-Tyrosine usage has been shown to overcome certain cognitive performance deficits due to prolonged sleep deprivation, including running memory, logical reasoning, mathematical processing, and visual vigilance [R].
In this study, 76 healthy male volunteers who ranged in age from 18–35 years were sleep deprived for 30 hours, and then given either placebo, Dextroamphetamine, Phentermine, Caffeine, or L-Tyrosine, and metrics of cognitive performance were assessed.
While Tyrosine did not perform as well as Dextroamphetamine in some tasks, it still attenuated cognitive performance deficits in several metrics caused by sleep deprivation, and outperformed Dextroamphetamine in mathematical processing at the 1.5 hour post-administration mark, and logical reasoning task assessment at the 5.5 hour post-administration mark [R].
Logical reasoning is a mental activity that aims to arrive at a conclusion in a rigorous manner.
In this study the logical reasoning performance measures were response latency per response and number of errors per session.
For a natural compound with a superior safety profile, this is a very promising outcome.
Effect On Cognitive Flexibility
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, 22 healthy adults performed in a task-switching paradigm.
Administration of 2000 mg of L-Tyrosine was shown to promote cognitive flexibility (the ability to switch between thinking about two different concepts or to think about multiple concepts simultaneously) [R].
L-Tyrosine Vs. N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine
L-Tyrosine is the most bioavailable form of Tyrosine, or so I thought.
N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is very inefficiently converted by the body to Tyrosine after IV infusion [R].
The graph above depicts arterial concentrations of N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine and Tyrosine during intravenous infusion of N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine.
As you can see, Tyrosine levels barely even budged.
In our first batch of Gorilla Mind in 2018, we had N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine in the formula based on marketing claims I had heard of improved water solubility.
After delving into the data further, I swapped out the N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine for straight L-Tyrosine because none of the N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine data showed efficient conversion to L-Tyrosine.
My stance a few years ago was that N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine was a waste of money and just a marketing ploy.
However, over the past few years I’ve heard several anecdotes of individuals getting clear benefits from using N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine.
It was too much to ignore at a point, so I revisited the data and discovered something that has made me pivot my stance on this ingredient.
Every single study showing inefficient conversion is utilizing IV infusion of N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine to assess how much it raises Tyrosine levels!
Now, on the surface, most (including myself when I first read that study) assumed that if during an IV administration (where you achieve 100% bioavailability) you still aren't getting efficient conversion of N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine to L-Tyrosine, and the majority of it is showing to be urinated out as intact N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine, then it’s probably totally useless, and the only option is to use L-Tyrosine or nothing.
But when you look at the overlapping data on N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), we start to get a clearer picture about what I speculate is going on.
In the same study showing inefficient N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine to L-Tyrosine conversion, we see a similar result reflected with N-Acetylcysteine inefficiently converting to Cysteine.
Now that I have learned more about pharmacokinetics, I suspect that oral ingestion of N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is required to have efficient conversion, and the IV administration itself is the reason why the N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine failed to increase Tyrosine levels in those studies.
N-Acetylcysteine is a commonly used supplement and a precursor to Glutathione, and it is widely accepted that it works extremely well.
When consumed, NAC is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is then converted to cysteine in the liver [R].
The liver uses Cysteine to produce Glutathione, which is then used locally for Glutathione synthesis or transported throughout the body to individual tissues [R].
After a drug is swallowed, it is absorbed by the digestive system and enters the hepatic portal system, where it is then carried through the portal vein into the liver for metabolism before it reaches the rest of the body.
The extent to which something is metabolized depends on numerous factors, but the main takeaway is that first pass metabolism can have a significant transformative effect on the pharmacodynamics of a parent compound.
The oral ingestion of a drug may metabolize into nothingness, which is often why some drugs aren’t orally bioavailable.
The metabolites the liver spits out may be what yields the main effects desired from the parent compound, or in the case of NAC and N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine, first pass metabolism may be what is necessary for adequate deacetylation into Cysteine and Tyrosine.
First pass metabolism may occur in the gut or in the liver.
IV administration skips first pass metabolism [R].
If first pass metabolism after oral ingestion is what is responsible for a significant amount of the deacetylation process of N-Acetylcysteine into Cysteine, then it is plausible to assume that when orally ingested, N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine may readily convert to L-Tyrosine.
Under this assumption, skipping the first pass effect via IV administration would have been responsible for the poor N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine conversion data in previous studies.
In the study mentioned at the beginning of this subsection, after IV’ing N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) into humans, the researchers concluded that “under these conditions the usefulness of NALT and NAC as precursors for the corresponding amino acids in humans is not apparent” [R].
Orally ingested N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), as a nutritional supplement, has hordes of literature supporting that it is clearly a “powerful antioxidant” and does convert readily to Cysteine, and increase Glutathione levels thereafter [R].
I strongly suspect that N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine is potent and useful as well.
I will continue to use L-Tyrosine in our powder and capsule formulas, because ultimately, we are just skipping the deacetylation process and providing the body with straight L-Tyrosine instead, which is more efficient.
However, in ready to drink preparations, such as energy drinks *wink wink*, L-Tyrosine is not water soluble and cannot be suspended in any reasonable quantity, but N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine can.
This is where N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine holds the highest potential utility in my opinion.
nooLVL® (Inositol-Enhanced Bonded Arginine Silicate) – 2,000 mg
nooLVL, a patented complex of Inositol-stabilized Arginine Silicate, has been shown to increase perceived energy, focus and accuracy in less than 15 minutes after dosing [R].
Nutrition 21 also boasts a 66% reduction in errors among the gamers dosed with nooLVL in their first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
One of the reasons nooLVL is so promising is that it accomplishes this without negatively affecting heart rate or blood pressure.
nooLVL works through a totally different mechanism of action than CNS stimulants, cholinergics, and other more traditional Nootropics.
It works by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, and more specifically appears to act as a potent cerebral vasodilator.
It is the first eSports ingredient to be clinically studied in gamers and has 31 supporting research studies to date.
Acute Effects Of nooLVL On Gamers’ Perceived Energy, Focus, Accuracy, Error Frequency And Anger
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 healthy men and women (18-40 years old) who on average spent 5 or more hours a week playing video games for 6 months prior to screening, were given nooLVL or placebo for 7 consecutive days [R].
Energy levels were evaluated prior to dosing, approximately 15 minutes after dosing, and after 60 minutes of gaming on day 1 and day 7.
After a single dose on day 1, perceived energy increased in the nooLVL group, while perceived energy decreased in the placebo group.
Focus, Accuracy And Error Frequency
The Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B were used to assess cognitive function.
The TMT is a validated and commonly used neuropsychological test that measures focus, cognitive processing speed, visual attention, task switching, and executive functioning [R].
After a single dose on day 1, nooLVL resulted in 66% less errors and significantly improved accuracy compared to the placebo group.
Before, and immediately after gaming, the effectiveness of nooLVL on cognitive performance was also assessed using the Stroop test.
The Stroop test is a neurocognitive test that measures the interference of conflicting stimuli to determine a person’s selective attention capacity and skills, processing speed, decision making and overall executive processing abilities.
Study results showed that Stroop test time was significantly faster as well as errors significantly reduced in the nooLVL group after 60 minutes of gaming, compared to a non-significant change in the placebo group.
Decreased Anger And “Tilt”
Professional and casual gamers often deal with ‘gaming rage'.
Gaming rage refers to the intense frustration and anger people experience while playing video games, typically due to losing, being repeatedly defeated, or encountering technical difficulties.
This type of anger can often lead to “tilt”, which is essentially when an emotional reaction to in-game events causes a slew of poor decision making and deterioration in gameplay.
One of the double-blind placebo-controlled studies that I referenced previously also conducted a POMS (Profile of Mood States) test that examined tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment on a five-point scale.
Anger levels decreased among those taking nooLVL prior to gaming [R].
Effects Of nooLVL On Working Memory, Reaction Time, Accuracy, Energy, Mental Fatigue And Concentration In Experienced Gamers
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 26 male and female experienced gamers were randomly assigned to consume 1600 mg of Inositol-enhanced bonded Arginine Silicate (nooLVL) or placebo [R].
During the trial, participants performed cognitive function tests such as the Sternberg Task Test (STT).
The STT measures short-term/working memory involving cognitive control processes, using reaction time and accuracy.
The participants were tested pre-supplementation, 15-min post-supplementation and after 1 hour of video game play, intended to mentally fatigue the participants.
Statistical significance was noted for several Sternberg measures including significant improvements in mean present reaction time.
This data provides evidence of enhanced working memory, reaction time, reasoning, and concentration among experienced gamers.
The data from this trial further supports the use of nooLVL as a gaming ingredient to increase perceived energy, focus and accuracy.
Effects Of nooLVL On Vasodilation
The bonded Arginine Silicate in nooLVL enhances cognitive performance by promoting factors that improve blood flow [R].
In an open-label, pharmacokinetics clinical trial, 10 men took 500 mg of the bonded Arginine Silicate in nooLVL every day for 14 days [R].
The men were randomly assigned to take a single oral dose of bonded Arginine Silicate or Arginine Hydrochloride.
This study showed that bonded Arginine Silicate supplementation significantly increased plasma Arginine levels at multiple time-points up to 6 hours post-dose, while Arginine Hydrochloride supplementation did so for only 1 hour.
This study also showed that bonded Arginine Silicate supplementation resulted in a >70% increase in plasma Arginine area under the curve compared to Arginine Hydrochloride, and showed a lower standard deviation than that seen with Arginine Hydrochloride, suggesting that Bonded Arginine Silicate is a more bioavailable, and less variable, source of arginine.
Nitric oxide (NO) is undoubtedly quite an important intercellular messenger in cerebral and peripheral hemodynamics and plays pivotal roles in the regulation of cerebral blood flow, so it’s not unexpected that a potent NO precursor might have some positive impact on cognitive function [R].
nooLVL® Vs. Arginine
Paradoxically, ingesting pure Arginine is not one of the most efficient ways to increase Arginine levels in the body.
Pure Arginine is significantly degraded in the gut during first pass metabolism [R].
This is accomplished via the Arginase inhibiting properties of the complex [R].
Arginase is the specific enzyme that breaks down Arginine in the gut, and by inhibiting it, you can prolong the breakdown of NO, achieve higher levels of vasodilation, and maintain those higher levels for much longer.
Alpha GPC 50% (L-Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine) – 800 mg
L-Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) is the highest quality and most bioavailable form of Choline that crosses the blood-brain barrier.
Taking massive dosages of Choline Bitartrate has been shown to have no cognitive effect in humans [R].
Alpha-GPC on the other hand has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and provide the brain with a rapidly absorbed form of Choline [R].
Choline is needed for the synthesis of cell membranes, lipid metabolism, DNA synthesis, homocysteine metabolism, as well as to produce Acetylcholine.
The surge of quickly absorbed Choline followed by the synthesis of Acetylcholine helps support an array of functions including, but not limited to, memory, focus, HGH production, and physical performance [R, R, R, R].
Memory, Focus And Overall Cognitive Function
A 1993 randomized, controlled study compared the efficacy of Alpha-GPC and Acetyl-L-Carnitine among 126 patients with probable cognitive decline, particularly memory loss [R].
Alpha-GPC consistently showed favorable effects in improving neuropsychological and behavioural test scores of the patients.
Improvements also occurred in the Acetyl-L-Carnitine recipients, but to a lesser extent.
A 2003 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted on 261 patients found that Alpha-GPC administration significantly improved memory and attention in older adults with cognitive impairment compared to a placebo group, and that Alpha-GPC may be useful for improving cognitive function [R].
The authors hypothesized that the clinical results gained with Alpha-GPC may be ascribed to both its effects on neurotransmission, and its activity in slowing the age-related loss of neuronal cells.
A 2007 review of Cholinergic precursors found that Alpha-GPC administration appears to have a significant attenuative effect on the memory and attention impairment caused by neurodegenerative disorders [R].
It also showed that 1200 mg of Alpha-GPC is more efficacious than Donepezil (a pharmaceutical acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) is at the maximum recommended dose prescribed for patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease [R].
A 2008 study found that Alpha-GPC administration improved attention and reaction time in healthy young adults compared to a placebo group.
The researchers suggested that Alpha-GPC may be useful for improving focus and attention in healthy individuals.
A 2015 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study found that 200 mg of Alpha-GPC improved concentration in young adults more than 200 mg of Caffeine [R].
A 2008 randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design study featuring 7 men with at least two years of resistance training experience examined the effects of an Alpha-GPC supplement on serum GH levels [R].
Compared to baseline, peak GH levels increased 44-fold after Alpha-GPC ingestion vs. 2.6-fold after placebo ingestion.
A 2012 double-blind randomized crossover study was designed to investigate acute physiologic responses to a single 1000 mg dose of Alpha-GPC [R].
Plasma GH levels were increased by approximately 290% 60 minutes after the oral administration of Alpha-GPC.
Force Production And Power Output
In addition, Alpha-GPC has been shown to significantly increase force production and power output, and may be an effective ergogenic aid.
A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition investigated the effects of Alpha-GPC supplementation on isometric strength in 19 healthy, resistance-trained men.
Participants had at least one year of resistance training experience and were required to have a current one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat of at least 1.5 times their bodyweight.
Participants were randomly assigned to either take 300 mg of Alpha-GPC daily for four weeks, or a placebo daily for four weeks.
The study found that Alpha-GPC supplementation resulted in a statistically significant increase in isometric strength compared to placebo.
The Alpha-GPC group had a 14.8% increase in isometric strength, while the placebo group had a 4.6% increase in isometric strength.
A 2008 randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design study featuring 7 men with at least 2 years of resistance training experience examined the effects of an Alpha-GPC supplement on explosive performance, and post-exercise substrate oxidation [R].
Each participant ingested 600 mg of Alpha-GPC or a placebo 90-minutes prior to completing 6 sets × 10 repetitions of Smith machine squats at 70% of their pre-determined 1-repetition maximum.
Compared to baseline, peak bench press force increased by 14% after Alpha-GPC ingestion vs. placebo.
A 2015 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study with 20 young participants (10 males, 10 females; 22.0 ± 3.4 years of age) measured the acute effects of Alpha-GPC supplementation on peak power output via a vertical jump test in comparison to Caffeine or placebo [R].
Vertical jump peak power was 8.5% higher than placebo after taking 200 mg of Alpha-GPC, 7.5% higher than placebo after taking 400 mg of Alpha-GPC, and 2% higher than placebo after taking 200 mg of Caffeine.
The same study also measured the acute effects of Alpha-GPC supplementation on cognitive function in comparison to Caffeine or placebo.
One of the tests used to assess cognitive function metrics was the serial subtraction test (SST).
The SST is a clinical test used to test cognition and concentration.
SST scores after taking 200 mg of Alpha-GPC were 18.1% faster than after taking 200 mg of Caffeine, and 10.5% faster than after taking placebo.
Another 2015 randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design study was conducted to determine if 6 days of supplementation with Alpha-GPC would augment isometric force production compared to a placebo [R].
13 college-aged males used either 600 mg per day of Alpha-GPC or placebo and at the end of 6 days performed isometric mid-thigh pulls and an upper body isometric test.
Alpha-GPC had a significant effect on increasing isometric mid-thigh pull peak force.
A 2017 study was designed to assess the efficacy of 250 mg of Alpha-GPC and 500 mg of Alpha-GPC in comparison to placebo and 200 mg of caffeine for increasing countermovement jump performance, isometric strength, and psychomotor function [R].
Group differences were noted for maximum velocity and maximum mechanical power on the countermovement jump with the 250 mg Alpha-GPC group demonstrating the greatest improvements in result.
A depression in circulating TSH levels was noted with the 500 mg dosage of Alpha-GPC, suggesting that there may be significant satellite dopaminergic interplay, as it is known that increased central Dopamine levels reduce TSH levels [R].
Alpha-GPC has also more recently been shown to improve motivation levels [R].
A 2021 study conducted on 40 healthy volunteers (31 females, 9 males) aged 22–59 assessed their emotional state in response to Alpha-GPC supplementation.
Participants were administered capsules containing either 200 mg of Alpha-GPC, or cellulose (placebo).
The participants self-administered 2 capsules, once daily at bedtime for 2 weeks, for a total daily dose of 400 mg Alpha-GPC in the treatment group.
The KOKORO scale was used to quantify and monitor changes in human feelings and emotions.
The KOKORO scale is a system applied in psychological surveys to evaluate “emotional movement” in the fields of academia, government, and industry.
The placebo had no effect on motivation, whereas the Alpha-GPC group showed an increasing trend in motivation during the intervention period.
Alpha-GPC Vs. CDP Choline
In general, the main reason we would use either Alpha-GPC or CDP-Choline is to have them cross the blood-brain barrier to provide the brain with Choline.
Alpha-GPC accomplishes this better than CDP-Choline.
Alpha-GPC is typically 50% Choline by weight, whereas CDP-Choline is only 18.5% Choline by weight.
An open clinical trial carried out to compare the efficacy and the tolerability of 1000 mg per day of Alpha-GPC against 1000 mg per day of CDP-Choline found that in most tests, Alpha-GPC possessed a statistical higher efficacy and an overall more satisfactory activity, assessed by both patients and investigators compared with CDP-Choline [R].
One reason CDP-Choline may be attractive is that it is a Uridine prodrug, and readily dissociates into both free Choline and Cytidine following oral ingestion.
In humans, Cytidine metabolizes into Uridine, which is a very potent Nootropic.
Instead of including CDP-Choline, which would ultimately dissociate into a proportionally lower amount of Choline and Cytidine (which would need to go through a multi-step conversion process to end up as some unpredictable amount of Uridine), I instead included a high dose of Alpha-GPC and Uridine Monophosphate in this formula.
This way I was able to control the Uridine yield and bypass the less efficient and unpredictable metabolism of Cytidine > Cytidine Monophosphate > Uridine Monophosphate > Uridine.
In general, anecdotes from reputable longevity researchers also seem to reinforce the superiority of Alpha-GPC over CDP-Choline.
Rhonda Patrick's Personal Opinion On Alpha-GPC Vs. CDP-Choline
“I have personally tried CDP-Choline and never really noticed any enhancing effect like I seemed to with Alpha GPC”.
– Rhonda Patrick (Ph.D in biomedical science/expert on nutritional health, brain & aging)
Uridine 5′-Monophosphate – 400 mg
Uridine Monophosphate is a nucleotide that is involved in the synthesis of cellular membranes and the production of neurotransmitters.
Data suggests that Uridine Monophosphate may improve cognitive performance via increased synthesis of brain-specific phospholipids and the enhancement of synaptic plasticity.
This compound has been shown to interact in unique and synergistic ways with both the cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways.
These effects are most noticeable when Uridine Monophosphate is stacked alongside central nervous system stimulants, dopaminergic drugs, or other cholinergic compounds.
Users often report being more productive, task oriented and focused when taking Uridine Monophosphate.
Reduced procrastination and brain fog are also common anecdotes after its use.
Uridine Vs. Uridine Monophosphate (Uridine 5′-monophosphate/UMP)
Uridine is naturally present in some foods in the form of ribonucleic acid (RNA).
This includes, but is not limited to, organ meats like liver and pancreas, brewer’s yeast, tomatoes, goat's and sheep's milk, sugarcane extract, beer, and broccoli.
There is conflicting evidence as to how bioavailable Uridine is in the form of RNA in food, however, Uridine Monophosphate has been shown to be both bioavailable and able to enter circulation from the digestive tract.
Modulation Of CNS Stimulant Effects And Unique Dopaminergic Activity
Uridine’s Effects In Conjunction With Amphetamines And Cocaine
In a study assessing Uridine and stimulant-induced motor activity, Uridine-treated rats exhibited a significant increase in the sensitivity to Amphetamine and Cocaine during rotation tests [R].
The neurotoxin 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) is commonly used in animal models to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain that plays a key role in motor control, to mimic the loss of Dopamine neurons seen in individuals with Parkinson's disease [R].
Unilaterally-lesioned 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) mice ‘rotate’ because of the loss of Dopamine-producing neurons in one hemisphere of the brain, which leads to an imbalance in Dopamine levels between the two hemispheres.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate movement, and the loss of Dopamine-producing neurons in one hemisphere of the brain leads to a reduction in Dopamine levels on that side.
This Dopamine depletion causes an asymmetry in the activity of the basal ganglia, a group of brain structures involved in motor control.
The resulting imbalance in activity between the two hemispheres leads to a rotational behavior in the mouse, where it continuously turns in one direction.
This rotational behavior is a classic hallmark of the 6-OHDA unilateral lesion model of Parkinson's disease and is commonly used as a measure of motor deficits in preclinical studies.
The greater the bias towards rotating in one direction, the more parkinsonian the animal [R].
Amphetamine works by increasing the release of Dopamine from the presynaptic neuron and blocking the reuptake of dopamine, thereby increasing dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft.
This results in a surge of Dopamine release, leading to feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and alertness.
Cocaine, on the other hand, works primarily by blocking the reuptake of Dopamine, leading to an accumulation of Dopamine in the synaptic cleft.
This also results in increased Dopamine levels in the brain, leading to feelings of pleasure, increased energy, and heightened arousal.
Both drugs can have similar effects on Dopamine, but Amphetamine tends to produce a more prolonged and sustained increase in Dopamine release, while Cocaine has a shorter and more intense effect on Dopamine levels.
Additionally, Amphetamine can also affect the release and reuptake of other neurotransmitters, such as Norepinephrine and Serotonin, which can contribute to its overall effects on mood and behavior.
When Amphetamine or Cocaine is administered to unilaterally-lesioned 6-OHDA mice, these drugs can enhance the release and/or block the reuptake of Dopamine in the remaining hemisphere of the brain, leading to an even greater imbalance in Dopamine levels between the two hemispheres.
This further exacerbates the rotational behavior in the mice, leading to increased turning in the same direction.
Paradoxically, despite exhibiting a clear potentiation of dopaminergic behavior, Uridine has shown to slightly reduce Amphetamine induced Dopamine release in some instances.
The results of the study show that Uridine does not affect Dopamine-mediated behaviors when administered by itself, but appears to alter Dopamine transmission when combined with various dopaminergic agents.
Its effects on enhancing Dopamine-related behaviors, with a concurrent inhibition of the Amphetamine induced Dopamine released necessary to achieve that level of stimulation, implies that it has a positive influence on Dopamine receptor sensitivity.
Restorative Potential Of Destroyed Dopaminergic Neurons
Other studies have shown different, equally interesting findings.
Another rodent model assessed the impact Uridine and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) have on Dextroamphetamine treated rats with partial unilateral 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine)-induced striatal lesions [R].
In this study, both Uridine Monophosphate and DHA reduced Dextroamphetamine induced rotations, but significantly elevated striatal Dopamine levels, Tyrosine Hydroxylase activity, Tyrosine Hydroxylase protein and synapsin-1 on the lesioned side.
Normally in these lesioned rats, this reduction in rotations would imply an inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission.
However, in this case we can see that Uridine has partially restored destroyed dopaminergic neurons to such an extent that the restored dopaminergic neurotransmission potential on the lesioned side is now seemingly evening out the stimulant induced rotations that otherwise would’ve been disproportionately higher in a more parkinsonian rat.
The authors of the study concluded that giving Uridine and DHA may partially restore dopaminergic neurotransmission in this model of Parkinson’s Disease.
This is not just promising for the potential efficacy of Uridine and its complementary effects with other Nootropics, but also for the potential Dopamine receptor density/sensitivity upregulation it could have in those who have a high stimulant tolerance, have abused stimulants in the past, or those seeking general cognitive support/neuroprotection.
The pathway in which Uridine increases brain concentrations of Phosphatidylcholine is called the ‘Kennedy Pathway’.
The Kennedy Pathway is a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that convert CDP-Choline, Cytidine, and Uridine into phospholipids such as Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylethanolamine [R].
Through this pathway, Uridine can influence many cognitive functions, including memory, learning and attention [R].
Although CDP-Choline is a cofactor in Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via the Kennedy Pathway, orally ingested CDP-Choline is dissociated completely and is a prodrug for Cytidine and Choline [R, R].
Oral ingestion of CDP-Choline does not raise plasma CDP-Choline levels.
Instead, it raises plasma Cytidine and Choline levels.
Mood Modulating Effects
Uridine has been shown to have anxiolytic effects, meaning it may reduce anxiety levels [R].
It has also been shown to act as a potent mood stabilizer in depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder [R].
Caffeine Anhydrous – 300 mg
Caffeine is the most well-known central nervous system stimulant on earth.
It is well known for its potent effects on wakefulness, alertness, and attentional performance.
When a person is awake and alert, little Adenosine is present in CNS neurons.
Throughout the day, Adenosine accumulates in the neuronal synapse, binding to and activating Adenosine receptors found on certain CNS neurons.
The activation of Adenosine receptors increases sleepiness.
When Caffeine is consumed, it binds to and antagonizes Adenosine receptors, preventing Adenosine from binding to and activating the receptor.
As a result, Caffeine temporarily prevents or relieves drowsiness, and thus maintains or restores alertness.
Increased Alertness, Wakefulness And Readiness
Via Adenosine receptor antagonism, Caffeine can increase feelings of wakefulness, alertness, and arousal [R].
Caffeine can delay or prevent sleep, and improve task performance during sleep deprivation [R].
Shift workers who use Caffeine make fewer mistakes that could be a result of drowsiness [R].
Improved Attention And Concentration
Caffeine can enhance cognitive performance on tasks that require sustained attention and concentration [R].
This effect is thought to be related to Caffeine's ability to increase the release of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the brain, which are neurotransmitters that play a role in attention and focus [R, R].
A literature review of all available double-blind, placebo controlled studies that assessed acute effects of Caffeine on attention tasks found that Caffeine clearly improved performance on simple and complex tasks [R].
Enhanced Working Memory
Caffeine has been shown to improve working memory performance, which involves the ability to temporarily store information in the mind while solving a problem or performing a task [R].
An example of a working memory task could be holding an address in mind while listening to instructions about how to get there.
Caffeine also affects the cholinergic system, where it promotes Acetylcholine release and acts as a moderate inhibitor of the enzyme Acetylcholinesterase, thus inhibiting the breakdown of Acetylcholine and influencing working memory and attention [R, R].
Faster Reaction Time
Caffeine can improve reaction times, allowing people to respond more quickly to stimuli.
One study conducted on sleep deprived anesthesiology resident physicians assessed the effect Caffeine had on their driving performance [R].
Residency training in anesthesiology involves care of hospitalized patients and necessitates overnight work, resulting in altered sleep patterns and sleep deprivation.
26 residents participated in the study and were randomly chosen to either consume a 160 mg caffeinated or a non-caffeinated energy drink 60 minutes before driving in a virtual reality simulator immediately after 6 consecutive night-float shifts.
After a subsequent week of night-float work, residents performed the same driving session (in a crossover fashion) with the opposite intervention.
Psychomotor vigilance task testing was used to evaluate reaction time and lapses in attention.
After consuming a caffeinated energy drink on conclusion of 6 shifts of night-float work, anesthesiology residents had improved control of driving performance variables in a high-fidelity driving simulator, including a significant reduction in collisions as well as slightly faster reaction times.
Reduced Mental Fatigue
The Minimum Effective Dose
The minimum effective dose of Caffeine varies depending on several factors, including an individual's body weight, tolerance to Caffeine, and sensitivity to its effects.
Research suggests that the minimum effective dose of Caffeine is likely around 40-50 mg, which is roughly equivalent to a small cup of coffee [R].
However, other studies assessing just how low of a dose can yield positive effects have found that surprisingly low dosages still move the needle.
A double-blind study measured the effects of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg Caffeine on cognitive performance, mood, and thirst in adults with low and moderate to high habitual caffeine intakes [R].
12.5 mg Caffeine improved cognitive performance during both simple and stressful demanding tasks.
This amount of Caffeine is equivalent to about a quarter of a serving of tea, and less than a quarter of a serving of coffee.
On a body weight basis, 12.5 mg equated to 0.18 mg/kg.
At the time, that was reported to be the lowest dose of Caffeine to reliably affect cognitive performance in human adults.
Dosage For Mental Or Physical Performance
Following low (∼40mg or ∼0.5mgkg-1) to moderate (∼300mg or 4mgkg-1) Caffeine doses, alertness, vigilance, attention, reaction time and attention improve.
However, less consistent effects are observed on memory and higher-order executive function, such as judgment and decision making [R].
In terms of physical performance, the minimum effective dose of Caffeine for improving metrics such as time-to-exhaustion, muscle strength, endurance, and high-intensity sprints has been shown to be around 3-6 mg/kg of body weight, or roughly 200-400 mg for a 150-pound (68 kg) person [R].
All that said, it's worth noting that some people may experience both cognitive and physical performance benefits at lower doses, while others may require higher doses to see an effect.
Generally, healthy adults can safely consume up to 400 mg of Caffeine per day [R].
Ginkgo Extract (Ginko Biloba) – 240 mg
Ginkgo Biloba is a popular herbal supplement that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to improve cognitive function.
While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, Ginkgo Biloba is believed to exert its effects by improving cerebral blood flow, reducing oxidative stress, and modulating neurotransmitter activity.
Cerebral Blood Flow
Complementing the vasodilation attributes of nooLVL, Ginkgo Biloba has shown to enhance cerebral blood flow.
A double-blind study conducted on 48 men found that 80 mg of Ginkgo Biloba extract taken once per day over a period of 8 months increased cerebral perfusion, as well as enhanced general intelligence, visuospatial abilities, attentional processes and information processing speed [R].
In a 2011 study, dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 9 healthy men, before and after 4 weeks of taking 60 mg of Ginkgo Biloba extract twice daily [R].
A mild increase in cerebral blood flow was found in the left parietal-occipital white matter after Ginkgo Biloba extract was taken, as well as a small, but statistically significant increase in global cerebral blood flow.
A larger sample size will be needed to confirm this finding, but it is notable nonetheless.
Processing Speed And Accuracy
A 6-week, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group experimental design study assessed the short-term effects of Ginkgo Biloba extract at a dose of 180 mg per day on 48 cognitively intact participants [R].
Participants who received 180 mg of Ginkgo Biloba extract daily exhibited significant improvement on a task assessing speed of processing abilities by the end of treatment as compared to participants who received placebo.
Trends indicating improved performances in the Ginkgo Biloba extract group were also demonstrated in three of the four remaining tasks that involved a timed speed of processing component, although they did not reach statistical significance.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted on 20 healthy young adults there was a dose-dependent improvement in speed of responding during a Serial Threes test following Ginkgo Biloba extract ingestion [R].
In the Serial Threes test, individuals were asked to successively subtract ‘3' from ‘100' continuously until instructed to stop.
The Serial Threes test evaluates concentration and attention, as it requires sequential registration, recall and mental manipulation of numbers.
A 2002 trial found that a single dose of 360 mg of Ginkgo Biloba extract improved secondary memory performance in healthy young adults [R].
A large-scaled 6-week, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial assessed the efficacy Ginkgo Biloba extract dosed at 180 mg per day in 262 volunteers, 60 years of age and older, who reported no history of dementia or significant neurocognitive impairments, and obtained acceptable Mini-Mental State Examination total scores [R].
The findings suggest that relatively short-term (i.e. 6 weeks) utilization of Ginkgo Biloba extract proved efficacious in enhancing certain aspects of declarative episodic memory, particularly regarding the efficiency of retrieval, and possibly the consolidation/storage of recently learned material.
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibiting Properties
There is some evidence to suggest that Ginkgo Biloba extract may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that plays a role in the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine.
MAO inhibitors are a class of drugs used to treat depression and other mood disorders, and they work by blocking the activity of MAO, which increases the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain.
In a rodent model, extracts of Ginkgo Biloba leaves produce reversible inhibition of brain MAO [R].
Both MAO-A and MAO-B types were inhibited to a similar extent.
Reversible MAO inhibitors are generally considered to be safer than irreversible MAO inhibitors because they have a shorter duration of action and are less likely to cause long-lasting effects on MAO activity.
Reversible MAO inhibitors work by binding to the MAO enzyme in a reversible manner, meaning that the inhibition of MAO activity is temporary and can be reversed when the drug is cleared from the body.
In contrast, irreversible MAO inhibitors bind irreversibly to the MAO enzyme, meaning that they permanently inhibit MAO activity until the enzyme is regenerated, which can take several weeks.
A 2009 rodent model found that acute treatment with Ginkgo Biloba extract inhibits the Norepinephrine (NET), the Serotonin (SERT), the Dopamine (DAT) uptake transporters and MAO activity [R].
Chronic treatment however, only influenced monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of the Norepinephrine uptake transporter, which suggests that Ginkgo Biloba’s effects on dopaminergic neurotransmission may be mediated through increased extracellular concentrations of Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) and Epinephrine (Adrenaline).
Cholinergic And Histaminergic Interactions
Ginkgo Biloba extract has been shown to inhibit Acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine in the brain [R].
By inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase, Ginkgo Biloba extract can increase the levels of Acetylcholine in the brain, which may enhance cognitive function and memory.
A rodent model comparing the efficacy of several Nootropics found that Ginkgo Biloba extract attenuated Scopolamine-induced amnesia [R].
In another rodent model comparing Ginkgo Biloba extract and Donepezil (a pharmaceutical Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor), Ginkgo Biloba extract was shown to facilitate its effects via cholinergic activity and perhaps partly due to a histaminergic mechanism [R].
Histamine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating wakefulness and arousal.
Histaminergic neurons are located in the Hypothalamus, and release Histamine in response to various stimuli.
The most well-known histaminergic “smart drug” is probably Modafinil, which has been shown to increase Histamine release in the brain.
This increase in Histamine release is believed to contribute significantly to Modafinil's wake-promoting effects.
This may be one of the pathways by which Ginkgo Biloba extract works as well.
BDNF And Neurogenesis
In a 2009 rodent model, it was shown that rats that were given Ginko Biloba extract had an increase in hippocampal cell proliferation by 55-80%, which is associated with an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [R].
BDNF is a growth factor that supports synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, neuronal survival and neuroprotection.
In addition, other rodent models have shown that Dopaminergic neurons proliferate following Ginkgo Biloba extract supplementation, leading to increased Dopamine synthesis potential [R].
L-Theanine – 150 mg
L-Theanine was discovered as a constituent of green tea in 1949, and in 1950 it was isolated from gyokuro leaves.
The main benefits of L-theanine are associated with promoting a relaxed state without causing drowsiness or sedation.
After consumption, L-Theanine can cross the blood-brain barrier and promote an increase in alpha waves.
This increase in alpha-waves may be responsible for L-Theanine’s effects on stress and anxiety reduction.
Theanine is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter Glutamate and binds to Glutamate receptors.
It acts as an antagonist at the AMPA and Kainate receptors, and acts as a partial co-agonist of the NMDA receptors (partial NMDA agonists bind to and activate the NMDA receptor, but only have partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist).
Theanine also blocks the reuptake of Glutamine and Glutamate via the inhibition of Glutamine transporters and Glutamate transporters.
Theanine increases Dopamine, Glycine, BDNF, and NGF levels in various areas of the brain.
It may increase Serotonin levels as well, but that is less certain because of conflicting literature.
Anxiety And Calmness
A study conducted on 20 healthy males aged 18 to 30 years found that L-Theanine supplementation promoted the release of alpha waves, and this led to enhanced mental relaxation and concentration [R].
Another study conducted on 20 fifth-year university students during pharmacy practice found that L-Theanine supplementation had a notable effect on attenuating stress [R].
Improved Attention And Reaction Time
In a study conducted on 18 healthy University student volunteers, L-Theanine had a pronounced effect on attention performance and reaction time response in subjects prone to have high anxiety [R].
Improved Memory And Attention
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted on 91 people with minor brain damage, L-Theanine improved memory, selective attention, and alertness during a memory test [R].
Improved Verbal Fluency And Executive Function
In another randomized controlled trial, 30 healthy adults were given 200 mg of L-Theanine per day, or placebo.
Verbal fluency and executive function scores improved after L-Theanine administration [R].
Stress levels also decreased, and sleep quality improved after L-Theanine administration.
Stacking With L-Theanine
L-Theanine appears to have some synergy with certain CNS stimulants.
For example, the Caffeine + L-Theanine stack is one of the most basic and effective Nootropic stacks to date.
Stacking L-Theanine With Caffeine For Enhanced Cognitive Function
L-Theanine may have cognitive-enhancing effects, especially when taken with Caffeine.
A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of 50 mg Caffeine, with and without 100 mg L-Theanine, on cognition and mood in 27 healthy volunteers [R].
The L-Theanine and Caffeine combination improved both speed and accuracy of performance of the attention-switching task at 60 min, and reduced susceptibility to distracting information in the memory task at both 60 min and 90 min.
Another randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-Theanine and 40 mg Caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of 44 young adults [R].
The combination of moderate levels of L-Theanine and Caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness, and reduced self-reported tiredness.
A 2019 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial found that stacking L-Theanine, Caffeine and L-Tyrosine may improve mental and physical performance in athletes and could hold ergogenic value for athletes in sports requiring rapid and accurate movements [R].
Stacking To Smooth Out The Caffeine Jitters
Although the mechanisms behind the synergistic effect of L-Theanine and Caffeine on cognition are not completely understood, L-Theanine's relaxation-promoting properties are likely responsible for the reduced anxiousness and jitters associated with Caffeine use.
Stacking For Enhancement Of Sleep Quality After Caffeine Use
One notable rodent model found that L-Theanine could partially counteract Caffeine-induced sleep disturbances [R].
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted on boys previously diagnosed with ADHD found that L-Theanine use resulted in significantly higher sleep percentage and sleep efficiency scores, along with a non-significant trend for less activity during sleep compared to those in the placebo group [R].
A 2019 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of L-Theanine on 46 participants with a DSM-5 diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) [R].
For context, a DSM-5 diagnosis of GAD has a pre-requisite of several very troubling traits [R].
Just one of the many criteria is “excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at least 6 months, about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance)”.
The 2019 trial found that L-Theanine may improve sleep satisfaction, as well as symptoms of sleep disturbance.
Saffron Extract (Crocus Sativus) (flower) – 30 mg
Saffron extract is derived from the dried stigmas of the Crocus sativus plant, and it has been traditionally used for its medicinal properties.
It has gained scientific attention recently for its potential anti-depressant effects.
Several studies have shown that Saffron extract has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depressant effects, and it may also have anti-cancer and neuroprotective properties.
Saffron extract has shown to increase the levels of Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine in the brain, as well as preserve dopaminergic neurons.
Antidepressant, Anxiety And Antianhedonic Effects
Saffron extract has a clear track record of notable antidepressant effects, consistently outperforming placebo, and performing comparably with the effects of pharmaceutical SSRI’s.
In a double-blind controlled clinical trial, 66 patients with major depressive disorder accompanied by anxious distress were randomly assigned to receive either Saffron or Citalopram (an SSRI) for 6 weeks [R].
The study found that both Saffron and Citalopram showed significant improvement in depression and anxiety scores, with no significant difference between the two.
In a 2014 randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 40 patients with a diagnosis of mild to moderate depression were randomly chosen to receive either Fluoxetine (40 mg/day) or Saffron extract (30 mg/day) for 6 weeks [R].
Saffron extract showed the same antidepressant efficacy compared with Fluoxetine in patients who were suffering from depression.
These results can be seen consistently across the board when comparing Saffron extract with pharmaceutical SSRI’s. Saffron extract has also been shown to ameliorate anhedonia, which suggests a more potent action in the regulation of Dopamine than Serotonin or other monoamines [R].
Anhedonia refers to the reduced ability to experience pleasure and is associated with low levels of Dopamine.
Anxiety and depression appear to be associated with the decreased activity of both Serotonin and Dopamine [R].
It is worth highlighting that the antianhedonic effects of antidepressants differ depending on the compound’s mechanism of action [R].
For example, Saffron extract, despite consistently achieving similar metrics to SSRI’s, achieves cognitive changes via different (and potentially superior depending on an individual’s brain chemistry) mechanisms.
Randomized controlled trials have actually been conducted using Saffron extract as a treatment for SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction [R].
This strongly suggests that the way Saffron extract produces anti-depressant effects as potent as pharmaceutical reuptake inhibitors extends past its Serotonergic effects.
Saffron extract appears to interact with both MAO-A and MAO-B in the brain.
A systematic review found that the administration of Saffron extract and its constituents increases Glutamate and Dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner [R].
A recent 2021 randomized controlled trial conducted on young men found that the addition of a Saffron supplement to resistance training resulted in greater improvements in happiness levels than resistance training alone [R].
AEA (an endogenous ligand for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor), 2-AG (the primary endogenous ligand for the CB2 cannabinoid receptor), Dopamine, and β-endorphin concentrations significantly increased in the resistance training + Saffron group, while no changes were detected in the resistance training only group.
Serotonin concentrations and happiness levels significantly increased in both groups with greater changes in the resistance training + Saffron group.
In addition, both groups experienced significantly increased muscular endurance, with greater changes in the resistance training + Saffron group.
A 2018 randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Saffron on reducing depression among 57 recovered consumers of Methamphetamine living with HIV/AIDS [R].
Saffron was determined to be an effective supplement through its ability to improve depression in these individuals, likely by increasing Dopamine and Serotonin secretion in the brain.
These results are just scratching the surface of the positive literature available on Saffron’s cognitive effects.
Huperzine A – 400 mcg
Huperzine A is a natural compound found in the plant Huperzia serrata, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
Huperzine A is a potent and selective inhibitor of Acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine in the brain.
By inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase, Huperzine A increases the levels of Acetylcholine in the brain, leading to enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission.
This increased cholinergic activity has been shown to improve cognitive function, memory, and learning.
In addition to its Acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity, Huperzine A also has neuroprotective effects.
It has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative stress and to promote the growth and survival of neurons.
Acetylcholine is not only a major regulator of cognitive performance, but it is also an important neurotransmitter needed for optimal muscular contractions during exercise.
A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials assessed the effects of Huperzine A on patients with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia [R].
8 trials with 733 participants showed that Huperzine A significantly improved cognitive function measured by memory quotient in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
A 4 week clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of 100 mcg of Huperzine A dosed twice per day on memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of junior middle school students complaining of memory inadequacy [R].
At the end of the trial, the Huperzine A group's memory quotient was more than that of the placebo group, and Chinese language lesson scores in the Huperzine A group were elevated as well, suggesting enhanced memory and learning performance in Huperzine A treated adolescent students.
Despite primarily acting as a cholinergic, some evidence suggests that Huperzine A may also influence the levels of other neurotransmitters, including Dopamine.
A rodent model found that Huperzine A significantly increased the levels of Dopamine and Norepinephrine throughout the prefrontal cortex [R].
Another rodent model found that Huperzine A had similar potency on increasing Dopamine levels to the pharmaceutical Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Donepezil [R].
Huperzine A And Cocaine Clinical Trial
Changes in the Dopamine system due to drugs of abuse have been extensively studied.
However, cholinergic transmission is also altered by drugs of abuse and contributes to psychostimulant reinforcement.
For example, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors block Cocaine self-administration in monkeys.
This finding, among others in animal models, have led researchers to investigate the safety and preliminary efficacy of the Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Huperzine A as a treatment for Cocaine use disorder.
In a 2015 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly chosen to receive Huperzine A or placebo [R].
Participants received randomized infusions of Cocaine (0 and 40mg, IV) on days 1 and 9.
On day 10, participants received noncontingent, randomized infusions of Cocaine (0 and 20mg, IV) before being given 5 opportunities, at 15-minute intervals, to purchase additional infusions or to keep $5 for each choice opportunity.
Time-course and peak effects analyses show that treatment with 400 mcg of Huperzine A significantly attenuated Cocaine-induced increases of “Bad Effects” and “Willing to Pay,” (ie, “How much are you willing to pay for the Cocaine infusion you just received-in dollars?).
Remembering Names And Information
How many times have you met someone, introduced yourself, and within a handful of minutes forgotten what their name is?
Or, read something and then minutes later forgot it.
This is the pitfall of the transition between working memory and long-term memory.
Working memory functions like a very leaky thermos.
It doesn’t hold much, and information spills out all the time.
This is a very relevant example of where the synergy of the cholinergics and other Nootropics in this formula could be advantageous from a memory enhancement standpoint.
The one-two punch with enhanced working memory and long-term memory formation may even be supportive in areas of life that extend beyond the enhancement of productivity, attention, or concentration on a particular task.
How Much Choline Do You Need Per Day?
The Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and 425 mg per day for women.
We all know how brutally low some of the AI's have proved to be in the past couple decades, and there is evidence suggesting that the AI for Choline is also far too low.
One study showed that 2200 mg per day of Choline protected against the DNA damage that otherwise occurred in people consuming only 550 mg [R].
There are not enough studies on Choline, and it is a severely lacking area of research considering how important it is for brain health.
I would shoot for at least 900-1200 mg of Choline per day.
A big chunk of that can be achieved through regular liver and egg yolk consumption, but supplementation can also help you hit that number with much greater ease.
I eat 1 ounce of beef liver per day, include eggs in my diet, and supplement with Alpha-GPC often.
I also take extra precautions to support methylation, which I will delve into next in the methylation subsection.
How Choline Affects Methylation And Health Status
The MTHFR gene codes for an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, or MTHFR.
This enzyme is necessary for the production of DNA and to support methylation pathways that are essential for all bodily functions.
Genetic variations in this gene result in reduced activity of the enzyme and have been associated with cardiovascular disease, neurological defects, some forms of cancer, and a myriad of other diseases and disorders [R, R].
Personally, I am homozygous for C677T of MTHFR, which results in an 80-90% decrease in my efficiency in processing folic acid.
The direct reflection of that in blood biomarkers can be high homocysteine and low B12 and folate levels.
I determined this via a simple 23andMe genetics test.
Normally your body creates methyl groups by recycling homocysteine to methionine, as well as by converting Choline to Betaine.
When nutrient intake needs are sufficiently met, the body depends on these two mechanisms equally.
However, if you are deprived of methyl groups or have poor MTHFR activity because of a polymorphism, you may create a disproportional ratio of dependency on the Choline to Betaine pathway.
If you can't create enough Methylfolate, your body will ramp up the use of Betaine and Choline for methyl groups.
By ramping up Choline to Betaine conversion to support methylation, your body can become depleted of the Choline it needs to create Acetylcholine.
Downstream, the depletion of Choline can eventually lead to impaired cognitive function, DNA damage, and can be deleterious to overall health.
The prevalence of MTHFR polymorphisms and micronutrient deficient diets is very common nowadays, and many people would benefit from changing their diet and/or using some form of Choline supplementation to maintain higher levels of Choline.
Ingredients I Didn’t Include In The Formula And Why
Theobromine competes with Caffeine for Adenosine receptor antagonism.
In addition, it has a dragged out peak time of 2-3 hours as a consequence of its lack of water solubility, whereas Caffeine peaks in only 30 minutes [R].
It also has a long half-life of 6-8 hours, whereas Caffeine is only 5 hours [R].
The ideal Adenosine receptor antagonist would work potently, quickly, and feature a pharmacokinetic profile that supports maximal clearance (or as close to it as possible) by the end of your day and allows Adenosine to do its job when you are trying to fall asleep.
Overall, my current perspective on Theobromine is that it is a counterintuitive ingredient to include in this formula as it could inhibit the Caffeine from working as well via Adenosine receptor competition and its inferior pharmacodynamic profile, and it could also make it more difficult to get high quality sleep because of its inferior pharmacokinetic profile.
Taurine is one of the most common ingredients in energy drinks and gaming supplements.
It’s almost as if it’s just an expectation of companies to include this ingredient at this point, regardless of if it actually provides any cognitive enhancement or not.
While Taurine is a useful antioxidant and has some literature supporting its utility for enhancing endurance exercise performance, Taurine acts as an agonist at the Glycine and GABA receptors and is a nervous system depressant.
Expectedly, its inclusion in energy enhancing formulas like energy drinks and pre-workouts has led to some confusion among scholars and researchers who see Taurine as a sedative, rather than a stimulant [R].
I speculate that its inclusion in energy drinks is mainly to make loose sports performance enhancing claims, or to dull the stimulating effects of Caffeine, so users will be able to drink more.
While the inclusion of L-Theanine in an energy enhancing formula could be seen as a similarly paradoxical adjunct ingredient, it is not sedating, and there is enough data specifically supporting its efficacy as a cognitive enhancing Nootropic in combination with Caffeine that I felt it was worthwhile to include at a mild dose.
Our Dream/sleep enhancing formula purposefully features a higher dose of L-Theanine.
I wanted Respawn to be a product that not only improves several vectors of cognitive performance, but also acts as a CNS stimulant complex in a unique way.
I wanted it to be different from all of the stimulant-based products we’ve already released, and be undoubtedly distinct from everything else on the market, and I felt that Taurine was a counterproductive ingredient to accomplishing that.
Glucuronolactone is a compound commonly found in energy drink formulations like Red Bull, and in Gaming formulas like G Fuel, with surprisingly minimal research on it, given its widespread usage.
It appears that each Red Bull energy drink, depending on the location in the world it is sold or the formula variant, contains as low as 60 mg of Glucuronolactone, or upwards of as high as 600 mg of Glucuronolactone.
Based on extrapolating out G Fuel’s “energy complex” we know that they likely use around 100 mg or less of Glucuronolactone.
Any literature available supporting its efficacy as a Nootropic is conflated with the supporting ingredients in the energy drink being evaluated.
Basically, in every study that has shown benefit, the observed benefits cannot be attributed to Glucuronolactone alone as it is featured in a blend of ingredients in a Red Bull or a pre-workout formulation.
Personally, I’m skeptical it does anything, and I suspect it’s likely a cheap and exotic sounding compound featured in certain formulas to differentiate the label in some unique way.
I am familiar with Astragalus, as I have been interested in it for its effects on kidney health, and potential impact on Telomere length for a while.
However, its utility in enhancing the bioavailability of select amino acids in conjunction with Panax Notoginseng at such a small dose has always perplexed me.
It is often featured in products at only 25-50 mg, despite the efficacious dose of Astragalus Root Extract for basically any application (especially boosting eGFR levels) being in the grams range.
I’ve personally seen Astragalus Root Extract clearly improve biomarkers, but it required thousands of milligrams per day to achieve those changes.
Even if it did enhance the uptake of an otherwise already bioavailable ingredient, would it not be more reliable to just use a maxed out, proven efficacious dose of that amino acid?
To me this seems like a more reliable strategy, rather than using a lower, submaximal dose, and then adding a bioavailability enhancer on top of it in hopes that it would enhance its effects to a level that you could otherwise just guarantee by using the efficacious dose.
I can see the potential utility when space is a concern.
For example, in a capsule product designed to enhance Nitric Oxide where only so much can fit in the capsules.
However, even then I’m skeptical of this ingredient, and is why I asked the late Dr. Hector Lopez for his opinion on it.
If you don’t know of Dr. Hector Lopez, he was a prolific researcher and formulator who I had a lot of respect for.
He brought an immense amount of value to this industry.
Overall, his opinion was that the literature supporting AstraGin was dependent on loose mechanistic hypothetical claims from preclinical animal and in vitro data, using doses magnitudes higher than those used in humans in dietary supplements to yield any enhanced amino acid uptake metrics, and it is likely not worth using.
If you can see in vitro that a pathway is upregulated after the administration of an ingredient, and that same mechanistic pathway is involved in amino acid uptake, concluding that the ingredient is then definitively going to significantly increase amino acid uptake in humans is a stretch.
He went into a lot more detail, and it was enough to convince me that it would likely be more reliable to just dose bioavailable ingredients where I’d want to see them as a consumer than to rely on very speculative amino acid uptake enhancing adjunct ingredients.
He did add a caveat that AstraGin is being studied in humans right now in China using a 50 mg dose to evaluate its effect on L-Arginine absorption and Nitric Oxide production, so it should be interesting to see what the outcome of that is, and perhaps we will revisit this ingredient in the future, and it may look more promising.
Lion’s Mane And Other Mushroom Extracts
Lion’s Mane and other mushroom extracts like Cordyceps, Reishi and Maitake hold a lot of promise.
However, the way they facilitate their effects is something that I feel shouldn’t be a forced mandatory adjunct with Respawn, rather they should be utilized when warranted based on individual brain chemistry.
Potent doses of mushroom extracts are not necessarily going to be universally advantageous for all individuals alongside what is meant to be a stimulating and dopaminergic monster of a formula.
Certain mushroom extracts have been used for thousands of years, not only for their cognitive-enhancing properties, but also for their potential neuroprotective attributes, and they have very potent effects.
With that said, in my opinion they are best kept siloed in a separate formula so you can choose to manipulate your dosages of dopaminergics and cholinergics separately from your mushroom extracts, and tailor your Nootopic stack to your own individual brain chemistry.
This is why we have our mega-dosed ‘Shroom' formula as a separate product entirely.
This is a Nootropic I really like and appears to have strong literature behind it.
We have it in our Gorilla Mind nootropic formula.
The taste of this ingredient is horrible though, making it a potentially flavor destroying ingredient.
Respawn already has several ingredients with memory enhancing properties, and the formula is designed mainly for energy, intense focus, accuracy, reduction of errors, and acute cognitive performance enhancement.
While Bacopa Monnieri is a great ingredient, I see it as a Nootropic more useful for studying, preparing for speeches and business presentations, memorizing songs and scripts, or any activity that could benefit from enhanced memory consolidation.
The risk of ruining the taste of Respawn with Bacopa Monnieri was too high given that it is intended to be something people will want to sip on while gaming or working.
Noopept, Bromantane, Racetams, Other Synthetic Nootropics And Prodrugs
Although they are effective Nootropics, Noopept, Bromantane, Racetams (class of drugs all named with the suffix “racetam”), prodrugs like Adrafinil, and other synthetic compounds that cannot be found in nature or the food supply are not DSHEA compliant and cannot be legally sold as dietary supplements, so we did not include any.
If this weren't the case, I may have fit Noopept or Bromantane into the formula.
Should You Ever Cycle Off Of Gorilla Mind Respawn?
It may be prudent to cycle off for at least a week per month, although the ingredients in the formula have all been well tolerated for months without breaks in clinical trials.
This will largely depend on your sensitivity to stimulants and cholinergics.
For example, there is only so much cholinergic neurotransmission a person can handle, and if you start experiencing fatigue or brain fog, it would be worthwhile to either lower your dose, use the product more selectively/infrequently (e.g. only on your most cognitively demanding of days), or cycle off for a week or so.
How To Stack Gorilla Mind Respawn With Other Gorilla Mind Products
Respawn is a turnkey formula and you don’t need to add anything to it.
However, there are certain circumstances in which stacking could be worthwhile.
Stacking Respawn With Gorilla Mind Smooth
If the max dose of Respawn (which contains 300 mg of Caffeine and a high dose of dopaminergics) is too stimulating for you, you could take ½ – 1 scoop with 1-3 capsules of Gorilla Mind Smooth to get a high dose of cholinergics without the max stimulant effects of Respawn.
Stacking Respawn With Shroom
Our mushroom extract formula Shroom has unique effects that may be complementary to Respawn, depending on your brain chemistry.
It is the most aggressively dosed mushroom extract formula on the market, and as far as I know is the first to feature the maximum 3.2 gram dose of Lion’s Mane shown to be effective in clinical studies [R].
In general, Shroom is supportive of mental clarity, creativity, information retention, and can be energy boosting in some individuals as well.
With that said, not everyone responds the same, and you should assess your response to each formula separately before combining them to determine if both are complementary to your brain chemistry on their own.
If you plan on stacking them, I advise dialing in your ideal Respawn dose before stacking Shroom on top, and then introducing Shroom at an introductory tolerance assessment dose of 1-3 capsules before tapering up over multiple uses to the maximum dose.
Stacking Respawn With Gorilla Mode Nitric
Adjunct Glycerol for additional hyper-hydration and Gorilla Mind Smooth for enhanced force production are great to stack on top too, but the biggest needle mover is the Nitric + Energy stack for maxed out energy, pump, and performance.
However, now that we have Respawn, I do believe that some who previously used the Nitric + Energy stack might prefer Nitric + Respawn.
Which you prefer will depend on your stimulant tolerance, goals, and brain chemistry.
I felt it would be worthwhile to give a summary below of each of our current Nootropic and Energy focused formulas, and which cases they each excel in.
Respawn vs Energy vs Smooth vs Shroom: What's the Difference?
? RESPAWN – Our gaming/cognitive enhancing formula designed for amplified focus, clean energy, elevated mental clarity, and enhanced reaction time.
It contains a potent blend of ingredients that push the dopaminergic, cholinergic, and cerebral vasodilatory pathways to provide a clear amplification of cognitive performance.
Respawn features ingredients studied specifically for aim, coordination, stress resilience and drive, as opposed to ‘Energy' which is tailored towards pure energy and anti-fatigue.
Best used for: Gaming, deep work, and/or cognitively demanding tasks.
⚡️ ENERGY – Our turnkey energy formula is tailored towards aggressive energy, productivity, and anti-fatigue.
It contains a high dose of carefully chosen synergistic stimulants and nootropics.
Energy contains distinctive components that set it apart from our other formulas and deliver huge amounts of energy, making it an excellent supplement to combine with Gorilla Mode Nitric or Smooth.
Best used for: Heavy lifting sessions or physical work.
? SMOOTH – Our stimulant-free Nootropic formula designed to support cognitive function, information retention, efficiency, and concentration.
It can also be used as a stack alongside our pre-workouts to boost strength through the acute effects of Acetylcholine mediated force production.
Best used for: Stimulant-free cognitive support and can double as a Caffeine-free/stimulant-free pre-workout.
? SHROOM – Our mega-dosed mushroom extract formula designed to support creativity, memory formation and consolidation, mood elevation, and neurogenesis.
Shroom can be a potent adjunct to Respawn, Energy, or Smooth via its unique ingredients and the different mechanisms of action of the Mushrooms in the formula.
Best used for: Creative work and cognitive support.
Limited Edition Respawn Shaker
To commemorate the release of Gorilla Mind Respawn, we have also released a limited edition Respawn shaker cup in collaboration with ShakeSphere.
It is still available on the site, and is available as a bundle with Respawn at a discount.
Conclusion – What To Expect From Gorilla Mind Respawn
This is the most potent and comprehensive gaming and eSports formula on the market.
You can expect amplified focus, clean energy, elevated mental clarity, enhanced reaction time, and a significant increase in drive and stress resilience.
I put a lot of time into it this and am very happy with how it turned out.
As mentioned earlier in the article, despite being branded as a gaming formula, Respawn doubles as a potent Nootropic and energy stack for any mentally demanding tasks, and is perfect for intense work sessions and boosting productivity.
The gaming industry is seemingly years behind the fitness industry when it comes to education around supplementation, and companies capitalize on this by selling glorified pixie dust Caffeine drinks to those who don’t know better.
We are going to change that with Respawn.
Try Gorilla Mind Respawn for yourself here and let me know what you think.
Coupon code “MPMD” will save you 10% off your orders on all of our products at checkout.